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By 1954, General Motors had achieved a spectacular success in the Twin Cities. One of the best (and few remaining) North American tram systems was toast, replaced with 500 GM buses, with the promise of further bus orders for decades to come.

After getting kicked out of Portland OR in 1935, General Motors created front company National City Lines to destroy electric rail lines. Yellow Coach, the company’s bus manufacturing subsidiary, had been losing a lot of money for the previous ten years, but was suddenly very profitable.

New Jersey engineer Jay Quinby (left) researched and exposed General Motors’ and co-conspirators’ anti-tram scheming. Federal antitrust prosecutor William C Dixon hounded General Motors and other anti-streetcar conspirators over the 1940s and ’50s. Inadequate laws, however, hindered his efforts.